Ernst Pöppel, August 2014
A small sample of publications from 1970 to 2014 for a first orientation; these and other publications with short commentaries see below

E. Pöppel: Excitability cycles in central intermittency. Psychologische Forschung 34 (1970) 1-9

E. Pöppel, R. Held, D. Frost: Residual visual function after brain wounds involving the central visual pathways in man. Nature 243 (1973) 295-296

E. Pöppel, L.O. Harvey, Jr.: Light-difference threshold and subjective brightness in the periphery of the visual field. Psychologische Forschung 36 (1973) 145-161

E. Pöppel, D. v. Cramon, H. Backmund: Eccentricity - specific dissociation of visual functions in patients with lesions of the central visual pathways. Nature 256 (1975) 489-490

E. Pöppel, R. Brinkmann, D. v. Cramon, W. Singer: Association and dissociation of visual functions in a case of bilateral occipital lobe infarction. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 225 (1978) 1-22

E. Pöppel: Long-range colour-generating interactions across the retina. Nature 320 (1986) 523-525

Ch. Madler, E. Pöppel: Auditory evoked potentials indicate the loss of neuronal oscillations during general anaesthesia. Naturwissenschaften 74 (1987) 42-43

M. Schleidt, I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, E. Pöppel: A universal constant in temporal segmentation of human short-term behavior. Naturwissenschaften 74 (1987) 289-290

E. Pöppel, P. Stoerig, N. Logothetis, W. Fries, K.P. Boergen, W. Örtel, J. Zihl: Plasticity and rigidity in the representation of the human visual field. Experimental Brain Research 68 (1987) 445-448

E. Pöppel: Taxonomy of the subjective: An evolutionary perspective. In: J.W. Brown (Ed.): Neuropsychology of visual Perception. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N. J., USA (1989) 219-232

N. v. Steinbüchel, E. Pöppel: Domains of rehabilitation: a theoretical perspective. Behavioural Brain Research 56 (1993) 1-10

J. Mates, U. Müller, T. Radil, E. Pöppel: Temporal integration in sensorimotor synchronization. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 6 (1994) 332-340

E. Pöppel: A hierarchical model of temporal perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (2) (1997) 56-61

Y. Bao, E. Pöppel: Two spatially separated attention systems in the visual field: evidence from inhibition of return. Cognitive Processing 8 (2007) 37-44

Yan Bao, Zhiyuan Wang, Wei Liang, Yi Wang, Ernst Pöppel, Hui Li: Inhibition of return at different eccentricities in the visual field share the same temporal window. Neuroscience Letters 534 (2013) 7-11

Mihai Avram, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Maximilian Reiser, Janusch Blautzik: Neurofunctional correlates of aesthetic and moral judgments: Equal but not the same. Neuroscience Letters 534 (2013) 128-132

Yan Bao, Aneta Szymaszek, Xiaoying Wang, Anna Oron, Ernst Pöppel, Elzbieta Szelag: Temporal order perception of auditory stimuli is selectively modified by tonal and non-tonal language environments. Cognition 129 (2013) 579-585


Ernst Pöppel, December 2013
Selection of Publications from 1967 to 2013 with Short Commentaries

E. Pöppel: Signifikanz-Artefakte in der experimentellen Parapsychologie. (Artefacts of significance in experimental parapsychology). Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie und Grenzgebiete der Psychologie 10 (1967) 63-72

Because of statistical dependencies of sequential statements of subjects while guessing the sequence of symbols, the card guessing technique to investigate extra-sensory perception (ESP) can lead to statistical artefacts, that have been wrongly interpreted as proof for paranormal phenomena like telepathy or clairvoyance.

E. Pöppel: Oszillatorische Komponenten in Reaktionszeiten. (Oscillatory components in reaction times). Naturwissenschaften 55 (1968) 449-450

In experiments on choice reaction time using visual and auditory stimuli, response histograms show multimodal distributions indicating an underlying oscillatory process in the 30 to 40 Hz-domain.

E. Pöppel: Desynchronisationen circadianer Rhythmen innerhalb einer isolierten Gruppe. (Desynchronization of circadian rhythms in an isolated group). Pflügers Archiv 299 (1968) 364-370

A group of four young adults lived for 3 weeks in complete isolation without any information from the environment; social synchronisation of the circadian rhythms was observed in the rest-activity cycle; however, one subject showed an internal desynchronisation under these conditions with a slightly shorter rhythm for temperature regulation and kidney functions which was expressed in a beat phenomenon resembling similar phenomena in physics.

E. Pöppel: Excitability cycles in central intermittency. Psychologische Forschung 34 (1970) 1-9

Visual and auditory stimuli apparently entrain an oscillatory process in choice reactions tasks which can be interpreted as a stimulus locked relaxation oscillator. A technical model shows that the "travelling moment" hypothesis is incorrect as it cannot explain the experimental observations. (see scan)

E. Pöppel: H. Giedke: Diurnal variation of time perception. Psychologische Forschung 34 (1970) 182-198

The production of short time intervals shows a dependency on the time of day with longer production of such intervals in the morning and in the evening.

E. Pöppel, J.C. Aschoff, H. Giedke: Tagesperiodische Veränderungen der Reaktionszeit bei Wahlreaktionen. (Diurnal variations in choice reaction time) Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie 17 (1970) 537-552

With a new experimental paradigm it was possible to disentangle repetition effects in a choice reaction time task from a circadian component. The diurnal effect was highly significant which was reduced, however, if subjects had to stay awake during the night.

E. Pöppel: Oscillations as possible basis for time perception. Studium Generale 24 (1971) 85-107. Reprint in: J.T. Fraser (Ed.): "The study of time", Springer, Berlin (1972) 219-241

This overview on temporal perception in the short-term (milliseconds to seconds) and long-term range (24 hours) summarizes observations supporting the notion of oscillatory components in temporal processing. In addition, the different experimental techniques for time estimation are described (production, estimation, reproduction, comparison).

E. Pöppel: Comment on "Visual system's view of acoustic space". Nature 243 (1973) 231

As the visual field is mapped onto the visual cortex with respect to retinal coordinates, a mapping of auditory receptive fields indicating locations in auditory space cannot correspond directly to the map of the visual field in organisms with lateral eye movements as auditory mapping is related to head coordinate. (Some people have referred to this problem as "Pöppel's paradox"). Thus, a remapping has to take place to match the two coordinate systems, possibly implemented at the mesencephalic level.

E. Pöppel: Fortification illusion during an attack of ophthalmic migraine. Implications for the human visual cortex. Naturwissenschaften 60 (1973) 554-555

Other than visual after-images fortification illusions during ophthalmic migraine cannot be projected onto a flat optical surface like a wall; they remain free-floating in visual space un-attached to a surface. The gradual movements of the fortification patterns through visual space reflect lateral interconnectivities between local neural elements and their orientation selectivity.

E. Pöppel, R. Held, D. Frost: Residual visual function after brain wounds involving the central visual pathways in man. Nature 243 (1973) 295-296

Patients with lesions to the primary visual projection system were believed to be absolutely blind within the affected regions of the visual field. This appeared to be implausible taking into account observations from non-human primates. It was shown that residual visual capacities like orienting to visual stimuli are still available without conscious representation. This phenomena has been referred to by Weiskrantz and colleagues as "blindsight". (see scan)

E. Pöppel, L.O. Harvey, Jr.: Light-difference threshold and subjective brightness in the periphery of the visual field. Psychologische Forschung 36 (1973) 145-161

The structure of the visual field with respect to increment threshold is described in detail. The perifoveal region is surrounded by a plateau of constant sensitivity. Apparent brightness of visual stimuli is directly related to physical intensity of the stimuli and not to threshold sensitivity. This results in the paradoxical observation that threshold stimuli are subjectively brighter at more peripheral regions of the visual field under photopic adaptation conditions. (see scan)

J. Aschoff, J. Figala, E. Pöppel: Circadian rhythms of loco-motor activity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) measured with two different techniques. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 85 (1973) 20-28

It turned out that the method to measure the circadian period is dependent on the measurement device. Animals show a tendency for longer circadian periods if their activity is measured in a running wheel, i.e. self-initiated movements. In general, it has to be assumed that the mode of measurement influences the variables to be measured.

E. Pöppel, W.A. Richards: Light sensitivity in cortical scotomata contralateral to small islands of blindness. Experimental Brain Research 21 (1974) 125-130

The increase of sensitivity contralateral to small islands of blindness or the blind spot suggests a noncortical inter-hemispheric mirror-symmetric control mechanism of sensitivity throughout the visual field. This mechanism is presumably involved in attentional control.

E. Pöppel, S.R. Shattuck: Reading in patients with brain wounds involving the central visual pathways. Cortex 10 (1974) 84-88

Even peripheral injuries in the visual field which do not effect the visual axis or perifoveal regions have a negative effect on the speed of reading. This observation supports the notion that any injury in the visual pathway has long range effects on cognitive processing like slowing down visual analysis.

E. Pöppel: Parameter estimation or hypothesis testing in the statistical analysis of biological rhythms? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (5) (1975) 511-512

Using sinusoidal approximations to biological rhythms in a statistical analysis of such rhythms may lead to a wrong description of the underlying data-generating process. The maximum of an observed psychological or physiological function may be shifted by several hours from the estimated maximum.

E. Pöppel, D. v. Cramon, H. Backmund: Eccentricity - specific dissociation of visual functions in patients with lesions of the central visual pathways. Nature 256 (1975) 489-490

Central injuries of the visual pathways effect psychophysical functions in the spared regions of the visual field in a qualitatively different way for perifoveal and more peripheral regions. This observation supports the notion of a functional sub-division of the visual field. (see scan)

D. Frost, E. Pöppel: Different programming modes of human saccadic eye movements as a function of stimulus eccentricity: Indications of a functional subdivision of the visual field. Biological Cybernetics 23 (1976) 39-48

The inhomogenerity of the visual field is reflected in saccadic control; stimuli up to approximately 10° eccentricity are usually reached by one saccadic eye movement; more eccentric stimuli elicit also a secondary saccade which corrects the preprogrammed undershoot of the first saccade; even more eccentric stimuli require also head movements.

E. Pöppel, R. Held, J.E. Dowling (Eds.): Neuronal mechanisms in visual perception. Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin 15, MIT Press, Cambridge (1977)

This Bulletin summarizes statements of the participants of a workshop at the NRP. The Bulletin was dedicated to the late Hans-Lukas Teuber who died in 1977. Statements were made by D.H. Hubel, L. Weiskrantz, F. Ratliff, W. Singer, J. Dichgans, N. Bischof, H.B. Barlow, J. E. Dowling, C. Enroth-Cugell, F.W. Campbell, L. Maffei, P.H. Schiller, R. Held, W. Richards, T.N. Wiesel, M. Stryker, A. Hein, D.C. Marr, T. Poggio, J.D. Cowan, and E. Pöppel.

J. Zihl, E. Pöppel, D. v. Cramon: Diurnal variation of visual field size in patients with postretinal lesions. Experimental Brain Research 27 (1977) 245-249

The regions of blindness in patients with injury of the central visual pathways are not stable, but are modulated by the circadian clock presumably reflecting the importance of activation for visual sensitivity.

W. Singer, J. Zihl, E. Pöppel: Subcortical control of visual thresholds in humans: Evidence for modality-specific and retinotopically organized mechanisms of selective attention. Experimental Brain Research 29 (1977) 173-190

Selective attention to regions in the periphery of the visual field appears to be modulated by non-callosal pathways between the two hemispheres; even non-consciously available stimuli influence attentional control.

E. Pöppel: Time perception. In: R. Held, H.W. Leibowitz, H.-L. Teuber (Eds.): Handbook of Sensory Physiology. 8. Perception. Springer Verlag, Berlin (1978) 713-729

This overview summarizes research on temporal phenomena like simultaneity, non-simultaneity, temporal order, the subjective present and duration. It is also indicated that the research on temporal perception has a long tradition going back to the sixties of the 19th century.

E. Pöppel, R. Brinkmann, D. v. Cramon, W. Singer: Association and dissociation of visual functions in a case of bilateral occipital lobe infarction. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 225 (1978) 1-22

A patient suffering from tunnel vision after a bilateral occipital lesion shows substantial restitution of function after visual training, presumably being the first patient in which such restitution was shown. A selective slowing down of processes as for instance in binocular rivalry was shown. Visual but not auditory reaction time was significantly prolonged indicating some independence of processing information in these modalities. (see scan)

J. Zihl, P. Lissy, E. Pöppel: Brightness perception in the visual field: Effects of retinal position and adaptation level. Psychological Research 41 (1980) 297-304

Constancy of brightness throughout the visual field is only true for photopic adaptation conditions. During dark adaptation apparent brightness is reduced in the visual axis. Thus, different presumably retinal mechanisms are active with respect to brightness perception under photopic and scotopic conditions.

E. Pöppel: Lust und Schmerz. Grundlagen menschlichen Erlebens und Verhaltens (Pleasure and Pain. Bases of human experience and behaviour). Verlag Severin & Siedler, Berlin (1982)

This book has been written in German for the general public stressing the classical notion (going back to antiquity) that every subjective phenomenon is embedded within a frame of emotional evaluation, in particular "pleasure and pain".

K.J. Miescke, E. Pöppel: A nonparametric procedure to detect periods in time series. Stochastic Processes and their Applications 13 (1982) 319-325

A new mathematical tool is described to detect instationarities in time series; in particular rhythmic components with only a small number of periods can be detected even allowing the application of inferential statistics. .

F. Turner, E. Pöppel: The neural lyre: Poetic meter, the brain and time. Poetry, August (1983) 277-309

Verse lines in poetry use the subjective present of approximately 3 seconds. This is true for many different languages being characterized by different syntactic rules.

E. Pöppel: Bridging a neuronal gap: Perceptual completion across a cortical scotoma is dependent on stimulus motion. Naturwissenschaften 72 (1985) 599

A patient with a wedge-shaped area of blindness pointing towards the fovea shows perceptual completion across the scotoma for moving, but not for stationary visual stimuli. Blindsight is "deblinded" with moving visual stimuli.

E. Pöppel: Grenzen des Bewußtseins. Über Wirklichkeit und Welterfahrung . (Limits of Consciousness. On Reality and Experience of the World). Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart (1985), 2. Auflage (1988) (Translations.: English, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Farsi, Japanese, Chinese).

This book in German written for the general public emphasizes the limits of perception and cognition because of our evolutionary heritage.

T. Roenneberg, E. Pöppel: Topographical distribution of the summation property of Y-ganglion cells in the cat retina. Experimental Brain Research 59 (1985) 1-9

Summation properties of retinal ganglion cells were found to be dependent on retinal eccentricity; this phenomena is believed to be related to the constancy of brightness throughout the visual field as described in humans.

P. Stoerig, M. Hübner, E. Pöppel: Signal detection analysis of residual vision in a field defect due to a post-geniculate lesion. Neuropsychologia 23 (1985) 589-599

Using a new method, i.e. the signal detection paradigm, residual vision (or "blindsight") is verified as a valid phenomenon.

E. Pöppel: Long-range colour-generating interactions across the retina. Nature 320 (1986) 523-525

Colour induction using the after-image paradigm is not a cortical but a retinal phenomena as regions of the visual field that no longer have a cortical representation affect the hue of the induced colour. The observations imply the existence of a retinal lateral network which is selective for different spectral components possibly implemented at the level of amacrine cells. (see scan)

E. Pöppel, N. Logothetis: Neuronal oscillations in the human brain. Naturwissenschaften 73 (1986) 267-268

The initiation of pursuit eye movements is discontinuous as reflected in a multimodal response histogram suggesting that optical stimuli initiate a neuronal relaxation oscillation with a period of approximately 30 to 40 milliseconds. (see scan)

E. Pöppel, Th. Steinbach: Selective vulnerability of the two cerebral hemispheres under alcohol. Naturwissenschaften 73 (1986) 327-32

Temporal processing is selectively impaired for the two hemispheres, the left one suffering more for a processing of auditory, the right one more for a processing visual stimuli. The selective advantage of the two hemispheres for either visual or auditory processing disappears under alcohol.

P. Stoerig, E. Pöppel: Eccentricity-dependent residual target-detection in visual field defects. Experimental Brain Research 64 (1986) 469-475

Residual vision ("blindsight") is not homogeneously distributed throughout the visual field; the perifoveal region shows a different characteristics compared to the periphery.

Ch. Madler, E. Pöppel: Auditory evoked potentials indicate the loss of neuronal oscillations during general anaesthesia. Naturwissenschaften 74 (1987) 42-43

The 40-Hz oscillatory components in the auditory mid-latency potential and its disappearance under anaesthesia can be used to monitor conscious awareness under such anaesthesia. Other than for sleep patients report for this physiological state that apparently no subjective time has passed indicating that oscillatory components represent an early necessary processing stage to create mental content. (see scan)

M. Schleidt, I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, E. Pöppel: A universal constant in temporal segmentation of human short-term behavior. Naturwissenschaften 74 (1987) 289-290

The duration of intentional acts is found to last preferentially 2 to 3 seconds; subjects from "stone-age cultures" behave in a similar way as members of "higher" developed cultures pointing to the universality of temporal segmentation in movement control. (see scan)

E. Pöppel, P. Stoerig, N. Logothetis, W. Fries, K.P. Boergen, W. Örtel, J. Zihl: Plasticity and rigidity in the representation of the human visual field. Experimental Brain Research 68 (1987) 445-448

A patient having suffering from squint since birth shows rigidity of visual field representation after a partial unilateral occipital lobe injury, but plasticity with respect to oculomotor control for the squinting eye, as lateral eye movements are programmed with respect to a functional pseudofovea. This dissociation poses new problems for sensorimotor integration. (see scan)

E. Pöppel: Size constancy and oculomotor modulation of perifoveal light-difference threshold. Naturwissenschaften 75 (1988) 463-465

It is suggested that size constancy results from a transformation of a coordinate system presumably in extrastriate areas using information from the extraocular muscles; thus, size constancy does not result from a recalibration of the perceived objects themselves but is of presemantic nature.

E. Pöppel: The measurement of music and the cerebral clock: A new theory. Leonardo 22 (1989) 83-89

Temporal processing of the human brain provides frames of reference for musical expression and production. In particular, musical motifs are most often found to correspond temporally to the subjective present of approximately three seconds.

E. Pöppel: Taxonomy of the subjective: An evolutionary perspective. In: J.W. Brown (Ed.): Neuropsychology of visual Perception. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N. J., USA (1989) 219-232

In a new taxonomy of functions based on neuropsychological observations a distinction is made between "what-functions" representing the content of consciousness and "how-functions" representing the necessary logistics of neuronal processing (like temporal control or activation). Both functional domains are necessary and sufficient for cognition. (see scan)

E. Pöppel, K. Schill, N. v.Steinbüchel: Sensory integration within temporally neutral system states: A hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften 77 (1990) 89-91

Because transduction time in the retinal receptor is much longer than in the auditory receptor, a "horizon of simultaneity" at a distance of approx. 10 m can be hypothesized where sound travel time matches approximately retinal transduction time. For visual/auditory integration temporal system states might serve intermodal integration for any distance of objects using neuronal oscillation in the 40-Hz-domain.

E. Pöppel, K. Schill, N. v. Steinbüchel: Multistable states in intrahemispheric learning of a sensorimotor task. NeuroReport 1 (1990) 69-72

Intrahemispheric learning in a paradigm of choice-reaction time shows multimodal response histograms where a later component gradually disappears, the first one being locked to a specific temporal window. Choice appears to be embedded in a temporally discrete process in non-automated situations.

T. Radil, J. Mates, J. Ilmberger, E. Pöppel: Stimulus anticipation in following rhythmic acoustical patterns by tapping. Experientia 46 (1990) 762-763

The synchronisation of regular tapping movements to a constant sequence of tones is characterised by an "anticipation" of the sounds by some tens of milliseconds.

E. Pöppel, E. Ruhnau, K. Schill, N. v. Steinbüchel: A hypothesis concerning timing in the brain. In: H. Haken, M. Stadler (Eds.): Synergetics of Cognition. Springer Series in Synergetics 45. Springer Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg (1990) 144-149

Temporal processing in the brain is hierarchically organized; different mechanisms are important for the transitions from simultaneity to non-simultaneity to temporal order to subjective present and to the estimation of duration. Each next step requires successful processing on the lower processing levels. (see scan)

Ch. Madler, I. Keller, D. Schwender, E. Pöppel: Sensory information processing during general anaesthesia: The effect of isoflurane on auditory evoked neuronal oscillations. British Journal of Anaesthesia 66 (1991) 81-87

The general anaesthetic isoflurance results is a suppression of auditory evoked oscillations in the mid-latency range. Brain-stem activities can still be observed under these conditions suggesting that the oscillatory components are normally implemented at a higher level of processing presumably in a thalamo-cortical network.

E. Ruhnau, E. Pöppel: Adirectional temporal zones in quantum physics and brain physiology. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 30 (1991) 1083-1090

The conceptual similarity of "time zones" in quantum physics and brain physiology is discussed. In particular, it is argued that a deeper understanding of the concept of time in physics can be reached if observations and theoretical ideas in brain physiology are appreciated.

E. Pöppel, L. Chen, H. Glünder, U. Mitzdorf, E. Ruhnau, K. Schill, N. v. Steinbüchel: Temporal and spatial constraints for mental modelling. In: V.P. Bhatkar, K.M. Rege (Eds.): Frontiers in knowledge-based computing. 3.Conference on Knowlegde-Based Computer Systems. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi (1991) 57-68

To mathematically model cognitive mechanisms, different processes in temporal and spatial binding are described. Pre-semantic and semantic ("top-down") binding processes have to be distinguished.

Th. Steinbach, G. v. Dreden, E. Pöppel: Long-term training in a choice reaction time task reveals different learning characteristics for the visual and auditory system. Naturwissenschaften 78 (1991) 185-187

In cognitive science, choice reaction time (CRT) has become a major indicator for mental processes and their underlying neuronal processes. It is shown that CRT reaches a plateau of performance only after many thousand trials. Thus, experiments using CRT as indicator are usually performed under non-stationary conditions.

N.v. Steinbüchel, D.v. Cramon, E. Pöppel (Eds.): Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg (1992)

This book summarizes the state of art on a theoretical and practical level for restoration of function in patients with brain injury.

N. Podvigin, H. Jokeit, E. Pöppel, A. Chizh, N. Kiselyeva: Stimulus dependent oscillatory activity in the lateral geniculate body of the cat. Naturwissenschaften 79 (1992) 428-431

Oscillatory components in the gamma-range can already be seen at the geniculate level. The oscillations are stimulus triggered. Possibly, basic features of images like a homogeneous surface or connectivities are already constructed at the geniculate level.

U. Engler, J. Zihl, E. Pöppel: Incongruity of homonymous visual field defects. Clinical Vision Science 8 (1993) 355-363

After lesions to visual cortex, hemianopic areas in the visual field are said to be homogeneous. This is incorrect on the level of detail. Hemianopic areas are usually smaller in the temporal visual field. Possibly, a larger degree of divergence in projection from ganglion cells representing the temporal visual field (i.e. nasal retina) account for this fact.

N. v. Steinbüchel, E. Pöppel: Domains of rehabilitation: a theoretical perspective. Behavioural Brain Research 56 (1993) 1-10

Based on a taxonomy of functions distinguishing "what- and how-functions" an algorithm is developed for different disease entities and derived rehabilitation, restitution or restoration of functions. These considerations may be important for the "International Classification of Function" (ICF).

J. Mates, U. Müller, T. Radil, E. Pöppel: Temporal integration in sensorimotor synchronization. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 6 (1994) 332-340

In sensimotor synchronization auditory stimuli can be anticipated by a movement with high temporal precision only within a time window of 2 to 3 seconds. If the interstimulus interval of a regular sequence of stimuli becomes longer it is only possible to synchronize by reaction or to allow a high temporal variability of the responses. (see scan)

E. Pöppel: Temporal mechanisms in perception. International Review of Neurobiology 37 (1994) 185-202

An overview of different temporal experiences is provided, and some relations of temporal experience to the arts are discussed.

U. Mitzdorf, B.-H. Li, E. Pöppel: Mass-action view of single-cell responses to stimulation of the receptive field and/or beyond: exemplification with data from the rabbit primary visual cortex. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 92 (1994) 442-455.

Neuronal processing of local visual stimuli on the cortical level is characterized by a distributed network activity.

D. Schwender, Ch. Madler, S. Klasing, K. Peter, E. Pöppel: Anesthetic control of 40-Hz brain activity and implicit memory. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1994) 129-147

In complete anaesthesia which can be seen if the 40 Hz component of the auditory evoked potential is not completely suppressed, results in storage of information during this stage which, however, may remain implicit (which does not imply that it may not effect the subjective state of the patient).

K. Rubia, U. Schuri, D.Y. von Cramon, E. Pöppel: Time estimation as a neuronal network property: a lesion study. NeuroReport 8 (1997) 1273-127

Lesions in subcortical regions may result in a remarkable slowing down or speeding up of temporal experience if simply counting in a regular way is used as an experimental paradigm. The result suggests that learned temporal behaviour like counting might be controlled by two control mechanisms with different eigen-values which under normal conditions are masked.

E. Pöppel: A hierarchical model of temporal perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (2) (1997) 56-61

Experimental evidence suggests an operational hierarchy of temporal experiences linking subjective phenomena like simultaneity, succession, subjective present and duration. In particular, the importance of neuronal mechanisms are stressed that allow for reduction of complexity in the temporal domain of 30 to 40 ms, and that allow the construction of a temporal platform of 2 to 3 seconds as a basic of cognitive processes. (see scan)

E. Szelag, N. v. Steinbüchel, E. Pöppel: Temporal processing disorders in patients with Broca's aphasia. Neuroscience Letters 235 (1997) 33-36

Patients with Broca’s aphasia loose their capability of presemantic temporal integration. Such patients have to rely on consciously controlled integration activities. It can be argued that the loss of effortless temporal integration could be basic to the linguistic problems of these patients.

E. Szelag, N. v. Steinbüchel, E. Pöppel: Temporal processing disorders in patients with Broca's aphasia. Neuroscience Letters 235 (1997) 33-36

Patients with Broca's aphasia loose their capability of presemantic temporal integration. Such patients have to rely on consciously controlled integration activities. It can be argued that the loss of effortless temporal integration could be basic to the linguistic problems of these patients.

E. Szelag, K.Rymarczyk, E.Pöppel: Conscious control of movements: Increase of temporal precision in voluntarily delayed actions. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 61(2001) 175-179

If one has to react to a stimulus not as fast as possible, but with a preselected delay, the variance of the responses becomes much smaller for delay times of roughly half a second and longer. It can be argued that voluntary monitoring of a movement requires a longer time delay with respect to a stimulus, and that under such control temporal precision is - counterintuitively - enhanced.

N. F. Podvigin, T. V. Bagaeva, E. V. Boykova, A. A. Zargarov, D. N. Podvigina, E. Pöppel: Three bands of oscillatory activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat visual system. Neuroscience Letters 361 (2004) 83-85

Evoked neuronal responses by visual stimuli in the lateral geniculate nucleus show different frequencies which are numerically related to each other in the relationship of 1:2:3, the basic frequency being close to 30 Hz. This temporal mechanism may provide a temporal frame for the so-called binding processes at the cortical level.

E. Szelag, J. Kowalska, T. Galkowski, E. Pöppel: Temporal processing deficits in high-functioning children with autism. British Journal of Psychology 95 (2004) 269-282.

In a reproduction task of temporal intervals autistic children have a tendency to reproduce any interval between one to five seconds with approximately three seconds. Apparently, there is a weakness in temporal modulation in such children. These results provide also support for the notion of "eigen-operations" in the brain with respect to temporal integration.

E. Pöppel: Complementarity as a generative principle in visual perception. Visual Cognition 12 (2005) 665-670

It is claimed that in visual processing both bottom-up and top-down processes have to be integrated. In a commentary to a theory of Professor Lin Chen on topological invariants in visual perception complementarity as a generative (not descriptive) principle is stressed, i.e. such topological invariants and local features have to be integrated to allow the neuronal construction of a visual image.

E. Pöppel: Der Rahmen. Ein Blick des Gehirns auf unser Ich. (The Frame. A View of the Brain towards our Self.) Hanser-Verlag München 2006

This book written in German for the general public summarizes some basic convictions (or "prejudices") of the author in the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. An attempt has been made to write a book in a similar way as science is actually done, at least by the author, for instance by harvesting serendipity. The main scientific content refers to complementarity as a generative principle.

K. Tanida, E. Pöppel: A hierarchical model of operational anticipation windows in driving an automobile. Cognitive Processing 7 (2006) 275-287

Any human activity is goal-oriented which can be nicely demonstrated by "driving an automobile". In a new model, five different levels of neuronal and mental operations are interlinked and which are connected in a bi-directional way. The highest level represents a strategic decision, it follows a tactical and on a shorter time-scale an operational level. The two lowest levels represent neuronal mechanisms to detect relevant information, and to integrate them on the next level into temporal windows of decision with a duration of approximately three seconds.

R. Ilg, K. Vogeley, Th. Goschke, A. Bolte, J. Shah, E. Pöppel, G. Fink: Neuronal processes underlying intuitive coherence judgements as revealed by fMRI on a semantic judgment task. NeuroImage 38 (2007) 228-238

Intuitive decisions compared to explicit decisions show a stronger involvement of those areas in the brain which are linked to emotional evaluations and personal identity. This observation may explain why intuitive decisions result in more trust in a decision.

Y. Bao, E. Pöppel: Two spatially separated attention systems in the visual field: evidence from inhibition of return. Cognitive Processing 8 (2007) 37-44

The visual field can be sub-divided in at least two different operating systems, one up to approximately 10 to 15 degrees visual angle, and another one beyond. Sub-cortical projections to the superior colliculus play an important role in this sub-division. A new model for attentional control is presented including cortical and sub-cortical processes using data from experiments on "inhibition of return".

Y. Miyake, Y. Onishi, E. Pöppel: Two types of anticipatory-timing mechanisms in synchronization tapping. In: N. Osaka, I. Rentschler, I. Biederman (Eds.): Object Recognition, Attention, and Action. Springer Verlag (2007) 231-244

Humans integrate information in a time window of approximately 3 seconds and generate a state of awareness that can be referrred to as "subjective present". An anticipatory timing mechanism is closely related to this type of temporal integration, and new experimental findings suggest that this time window is characterized by a dual process of integration.

E. Pöppel: Zum Entscheiden geboren. Hirnforschung für Manager. (Born to decide. Brain science for manager). Hanser-Verlag München 2008

This book written in German for the general public describes in ten chapters some basic concepts from the neurosciences to better understand decision processes.

E. Pöppel: Pre-semantically defined temporal windows for cognitive processing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 364 (2009) 1887-1896

Temporal integration of successive information is suggested to use pre-semantically defined temporal windows in the range of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately two to three seconds. Temporal integration is of complementary nature, using both a temporal stage as a logistic function and information as a content function.

D. Darmohray, B. Zhou, E. Pöppel: Tolerance of Stereopsis to Conjunctive Cyclorotation. Perception 38 (2009) 1867-1870

When rotating the head to the left or to the right side stereopsis breaks down in a vertically presented optical pattern at approximately 12 degrees.

Bin Zhou, Yan Bao, Tilmann Sander, Lutz Trahms, Ernst Pöppel: Dissociation of summation and peak latencies in visual processing: An MEG study on stimulus eccentricity. Neuroscience Letters 483 (2010) 101-104

The visual field has been shown to be functional subdivided; evidence comes from threshold measurements, oculomotor control, neuropsychological and neuroanatomical observations, or attentional modulation. Using the MEG technology some controversial results in previous studies could be disentangled.

Bin Zhou, Jungang Qin, Lihua Mao, Shihui Han, Ernst Pöppel: Modulations of temporal perception by consciously and unconsciously perceived stimuli. Perception 39 (2010) 900-908

It is still not known whether consciously or unconsciously perceived stimuli are perceived in a similar way. Using a temporal comparison task it could be shown that different effects are produced if stimuli are perceived consciously or unconsciously leading either to compression or expansion of subjective time.

Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao: Three modes of knowledge as basis for intercultural cognition and communication: A theoretical perspective In: Shihui Han, Ernst Pöppel (eds): Culture and Neural Frames of Cognition and Communication, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2011, 215-231

Knowledge is usually only referred to as explicit knowledge. It is argued that on the basis of neurobiological evidence two additional modes of knowledge have to be distinguished, i.e. implicit (intuitive) and pictorial knowledge. The three modes of knowledge are unified on a formal level by the aesthetic principle, and on a content level by the mimetic principle. Examples are provided to clarify the concept.

Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao, Bin Zhou: "Temporal windows" as logistical basis for cognitive processing. Advances in Psychological Science, 19 (2011) 775 - 793

An overview is given on the historical roots of research on temporal perception and the challenges for future research. Temporal windows as integration intervals are emphasized which are necessary for complexity reduction of information to be processed, and for the creation and maintenance of perceptual identity.

Yan Bao, Tilmann Sander, Lutz Trahms, Ernst Pöppel, Quan Lei, Bin Zhou:The eccentricity effect of inhibition of return is resistant to practice. Neuroscience Letters, 500 (2011) 47-51

The human visual field is characterized by an important inhomogeneity which can be shown using the paradigm of "inhibition of return" (IOR). This "eccentricity effect" indicates a critical border at approximately 10 to 15 degrees visual angle. This border is rather stable and does not shift after practice.

Ernst Pöppel, Eva Ruhnau: Psychologie als eine auf Modelle angewiesene Angelegenheit ohne Taxonomie - eine Polemik. Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 110, Nr. 377, 213-233 (2011) (Engl.: Psychology as an enterprise being dependent on models - a polemic; published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science)

Other than in chemistry or biology, psychology is still lacking a generally agreed upon taxonomy of functions. Research is based on models that are oriented towards physics, linguistics, ethology, or phenomenology, (or "common sense"). The most attractive potential taxonomy comes from neuropsychology, the argument being that the loss of a function proves its existence.

Yi-Huang Su, Ernst Pöppel: Body movement enhances the extraction of temporal structures in auditory sequences. Psychological Research, 76, 373-382, 2012

A hidden temporal structure in a sequence of auditory stimuli is extracted more easily if the subjects are using rhythmic body movements, and this strategy is particular useful for non-musicians indicating that musicians have internalized such movement patterns. This research contributes to the general concept of "embodiment".

Sarita Silveira, Verena Graupmann, Dieter Frey, Janusch Blautzik, Thomas Meindl, Maximilian Reiser, Cheng Chen, Yizhou Wang, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Evgeny Gutyrchik: Matching reality in the arts: Self-referential neural processing of naturalistic compared to surrealistic images. Perception, 41, 569-576, 2012

The brain reacts differently if subjects look at naturalistic or surrealistic pictures. Apparently, the physical impossible as being typical for the surrealistic movement in the arts is efforlessly recognized instantaneously by the viewer. This research also indicates that artwork can creatively be used in psychophysical and neurobiological research.

Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel: Anthropological universals and cultural specifics: Conceptual and methodological challenges in cultural neuroscience. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (2012) 2143-2146

It has been claimed that the use of imaging technology (fMRI) in cultural or social neuroscience may support "racism". In a critical commentary it is pointed out that before making such far-reaching political statements one has to critically evaluate the limits of these technologies. Possibly, anthropological universals like temporal processing or attentional control are more robust phenomena than cultural specifics.

Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao: The visual field paradox: A theoretical account on the reafference principle providing a common frame for the homogeneity and inhomogeneity of visual representation. Cognitive Processing, 13 (suppl.) (2012) S285-S287

Using the experimental paradigm of "inhibition of return" (IOR) an eccentricity effect of attentional control in the visual field has been shown indicating an inhomogeneity of visual processing: This confirms previous observations like the structure of sensitivity throughout the visual field. At the same time one observes homogeneity of brightness throughout the visual field, leading to a paradox. This paradox is overcome if one uses the basic concept of the reafference principle in which sensory and motor aspects of behavior are integrated.

Yan Bao, Zhiyuan Wang, Wei Liang, Yi Wang, Ernst Pöppel, Hui Li: Inhibition of return at different eccentricities in the visual field share the same temporal window. Neuroscience Letters 534 (2013) 7-11

Although attentional control in the visual field is characterized by an eccentricity effect, i.e. showing a stronger effect for inhibition of return for more peripheral visual targets (see Bao and Pöppel, 2007), the temporal machinery of information processing is characterized by a unifying principle.

Mihai Avram, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Maximilian Reiser, Janusch Blautzik: Neurofunctional correlates of aesthetic and moral judgments: Equal but not the same. Neuroscience Letters 534 (2013) 128-132

Surprisingly, the spatio-temporal pattern of neural activations for aesthetic and moral judgments are rather similar; the pattern of aesthetic judgment appears to be a subset of moral judgments.

Aline Lutz, Armin Nassehi, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Anikó Sztrókay, Maximilian Reiser, Kai Fehse, Evgeny Gutyrchik: Neurocognitive processing of body representations in artistic and photographic images. NeuroImage 66 (2013) 288-292

The frame of reference is crucial for neural activations in the processing of sensory information; if stimuli are presented within the context of "art" they are processed differently compared to a context of "non-art". This observation supports the theory of the American philosopher Arthur Danto who stresses the idea of "aboutness" in the appreciation of art in general and modern art in particular.

Yan Bao, Aneta Szymaszek, Xiaoying Wang, Anna Oron, Ernst Pöppel, Elzbieta Szelag: Temporal order perception of auditory stimuli is selectively modified by tonal and non-tonal language environments. Cognition 129, 2013, 579-585

If temporal order is measured with click sounds of 1 ms duration, no difference is observed between Chinese and Polish subjects. If, however, the sequence of close frequency sounds compared to far frequency sounds has to be indicated, Chinese subjects do better with close frequency sounds and Polish subjects with far frequency sounds. In addition, different response strategies are employed, i.e., holistic compared to analytic strategies, holistic ones leading to shorter temporal order thresholds.

Mona Park, Kristina Hennig-Fast, Yan Bao, Petra Carl, Ernst Pöppel, Lorenz Welker, Maximilian Reiser, Thomas Meindl, Evgeny Gutyrchik: Personality traits modulate neural responses to emotions expressed in music: An fMRI study. Brain Research 1523 (2013) 68-76

As to be expected not everyone reacts the same way to music. The neural activation patterns were compared when subjects listened to happiness, fear or sadness expressed in music. It was observed for instance that subjects with high scores in "neuroticism" show a different brain pattern for "happiness" expressed in music; subjects with higher scores in "extraversion" tend to react differentially to "fear".

Yan Bao, Quan Lei, Yuan Fang, Yu Tong, Kerstin Schill, Ernst Pöppel, Hans Strasburger: Inhibition of Return in the Visual Field: the Eccentricity Effect is Independent of Cortical Magnification. Experimental Psychology 60 (2013) 425-431

One might argue that the size of optical stimuli presented at different posititions of the visual field might be responsible for the "eccentricity effect"; this is not the case: If stimuli in the periphery are adjusted in size innervating approximately the same cortical area than the perifoveal stimuli, the effect is still observed. One has to conclude that the human visual system is indeed characterized by two different attentional systems. read more

Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao, Shihui Han, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Alexey Sozinov, Dmitry Ushakov, Artem Kovalev, Alexander M. Chernorizov, Galina Ya. Menshikova, Vera Y. Zabotkina, Yuliya Zaytseva, Yuri P. Zinchenko: Unasked questions and unused answers in psychology. "Psychology in Russia. State of the Art", 6 (2013) 4-18

The 10th Sino-German Workshop in Cognitive Neuroscience which was held in Hamburg (Germany) in 2013 with participants from 14 different countries provided the opportunity to discuss open questions in our research. One such question is for instance whether "time" is processed in the brain continuously or in discrete steps; another one addresses the question about a missing taxonomy of functions in psychology. Russian colleages have taken up these open questions and discussed them in this new Russian journal.

Mihai Avram, Kristina Hennig-Fast, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Maximilian Reiser, Janusch Blautzik, James Giordano, Evgeny Gutyrchik: Neural correlates of moral judgments in first- and third-person perspectives: implications for neuroethics and beyond. "BMC Neuroscience", (2014) 15:39

Moral judgments are very different when made from a personal perspective or from a more abstract third-person perspective. Political or economic decisions are usually made from the abstract perspective not appreciating sufficiently their personal impact.

Hui Li, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Yi-Huang Su: A unique visual rhythm does not pop out. "Cognitive Processing" 15 (2014) 93-97

We easily recognize a black sheep in a herd of white sheep or a red dot surrounded by green dots. But how about a visual rhythm? It turns out that a visual rhythm does not "pop out", although we immediately recognize if in a group of walking people one person is desynchronized. For such a "temporal pop out" the conjunction of period, phase and amplitude is necessary; merely a different period is not sufficient.

KyungHun Han, Yuliya Zaytseva, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, SunYong Chung, JongWoo Kim, HyunTaek Kim: Impairment of the vocal expression of emotions in patients with Alzheimer's disease. "Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience", 2014

To detect and to express an emotion is essential for human communication. It is a burden for everybody if this capacity is reduced or lost as this easily leads to misunderstandings. Unfortunately, patients with dementia lose their capacity to express their emotions in speech.

Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao: Temporal windows as bridge from objective time to subjective time. In: Dan Lloyd and Valtteri Arstila (Eds.), "Subjective Time: the philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of temporality", MIT Press 2014, pp. 241-261

This article summarizes research on "temporal windows" in the domain of some tens of milliseconds and of a few seconds. The shorter time window serves the definition of primordial events, the longer one is interpreted as the basis of the "subjective present" lasting approximately 3 seconds.

Yuliya Zaytseva, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Shihui Han, Georg Northoff, Lorenz Welker, Thomas Meindl, Janusch Blautzik: Self processing in the brain: A paradigmatic fMRI case study with a professional singer. "Brain and Cognition", 87 (2014) 104-108

It is a fact that the progress in psychology and cognitive neuroscience has often be made on the basis of single case studies. In spite of that, such studies are often treated with reservation. Here we report such a study with an eminent soprano singer, and we gain important insight into the neuronal representation of self identity.

Bin Zhou, Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao: In the jungle of time: The concept of identity as an escape. "Frontiers in Psychology", 2014. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00844

There seem to be as many theories in philosophy about "time" as there are philosophers who write about it. And there is certainly not only ine theory of time in physics; usually one refers in psychology to the Newtonian concept of time. In this article we suggest as a unifying principle for "temporal experiences" the concept of "identity", and we derive this concept from the homeostatic regulation of functions, i.e., we use a psychobiological frame of reference.